Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the fatal pestilence of mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species.
The Myth of Sisyphus is far from having a skeptical conclusion.
Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to have regarded existentialism as a complete and systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine. On January 4,Camus died tragically in a car accident while he was a passenger in a vehicle driven by his friend and publisher Michel Gallimard, who also suffered fatal injuries.
In Le Mythe, Camus investigates our experience of the Absurd and asks how we live with it. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus traces it in specific characters of legend and literature Don Juan, Ivan Karamazov and also in certain character types the Actor, the Conquerorall of who may be understood as in some way a version or manifestation of Sisyphus, the archetypal absurd hero.
It is impossible, then, to embrace rebellion while rejecting violence. So, the central problem in Camus's essay can be formulated as follows: Camus first expressed this directly under the inspiration of his encounter with Being and Nothingness. But afterwards the incident begins to gnaw at him, and eventually he comes to view his inaction as typical of a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of human sympathy on his part.
Might not Silenus be right in declaring that it would have been better not to have been born, or to die as soon as possible? But it also reflects his capacity for interpreting a specific disagreement in the broadest possible terms—as a fundamental conflict of philosophies.
In doing so he becomes for Camus a superb icon of the spirit of revolt and of the human condition. Sartre, in his essay-review of The Stranger provides an additional gloss on the idea: The hope that life makes sense, on the other hand, makes us do our best to prove the usefulness and significance of our existence.
In effect, instead of removing himself from the absurd confrontation of self and world like the physical suicide, the religious believer simply removes the offending world and replaces it, via a kind of metaphysical abracadabra, with a more agreeable alternative.
Here, as elsewhere in his philosophical writing, he commends to his readers to face a discomforting reality squarely and without flinching, but he does not feel compelled to present reasons or evidence. This last point was already contained in Nuptials, but here is expanded to link consciousness with happiness.
Camus focuses on a variety of major figures, movements, and literary works: The issue is not resolved by the explanations that Camus gives for his shift in the first pages of The Rebel—by referring to the mass murders of the middle third of the twentieth century.
In line with this theme, the ever-ambiguous Meursault in The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the newly emerging mass personality that is, as a figure devoid of basic human feelings and passions and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old Romanticism—and hence a figure who is viewed as both dangerous and alien by the robotic majority.
He has lived his existence from one moment to the next and without much awareness, but at his trial and while awaiting execution he becomes like Sisyphus, fully conscious of himself and his terrible fate.
As does the rebel who becomes a revolutionary who kills and then justifies murder as legitimate. But if he accepts killing in certain circumstances, Camus rules out mass killing, indirect murder, killing civilians, and killing without an urgent need to remove murderous and tyrannical individuals.
Those of us not bereft of commitments or hopes should not think him fortunate. He has none of the inner workings of a bereaved person: Is authentic pessimism compatible with the view that there is an essential dignity to human life?
In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from Aristotle to Kant than to the modern tradition of skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Derrida the latter his fellow-countryman and, at least in his commitment to human rights and opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and descendant.
He will have figured out to his own reasoned satisfaction how his life shall proceed given that it cannot proceed just as before. This led to further ostracism by French left-wing intellectuals. The Rebel is, rather, a historically framed philosophical essay about underlying ideas and attitudes of civilization.
Camus focuses on a variety of major figures, movements, and literary works: Since to conclude otherwise would negate its very premise, namely the existence of the questioner, absurdism must logically accept life as the one necessary good.Camus, the great French absurdist said that suicide is the only truly serious philosophical problem.
Man's courageous quest to find the reason behind his own personal existence forms. The consensus of his friends was that Camus, too, committed suicide. But the consensus of his peers was that he was a brilliant writer, but no philosopher.
Perhaps many today cannot appreciate the public mood after the war, especially in Europe. Albert Camus (–) was a journalist, editor and editorialist, playwright and director, novelist and author of short stories, political essayist and activist—and, although he more than once denied it.
Albert Camus was born on November 7,in Mondovi, a small village near the seaport city of Bonê (present-day Annaba) in the northeast region of French Algeria. He was the second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene (Sintes) Camus, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker.
According to Olivier Todd, in his biography Albert Camus, une vie, it was a group opposed to some tendencies of the Surrealist movement of André Breton. Camus viewed the question of suicide as arising naturally as a solution to the absurdity of life.
Philosopher Michael Cholbi examines the protagonist of Albert Camus’ existentialist novel The Stranger and brings him in dialogue with St. Augustine’s The Confessions, in order to examine the potential of ethical self-knowledge as a consequence of grief.Download